Solar charge controllers control the energy coming from the solar panels, adjust the current and voltage and send it to the batteries. The charge controller protects the system by preventing the batteries from being overcharged and discharged. A charge controller is needed in every solar energy system. Charge controllers are divided into two as PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) and MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking).
MPPT is an acronym for Maximum Power Point Tracking. MPPT is a technique used to monitor and regulate energy from solar panels to batteries. Solar panels give variable outputs due to weather conditions. MPPT charge controllers can match panel voltage to battery voltage to maximize charging efficiency. In these systems, the full power of the solar panels can be used by establishing a balance between voltage and current according to the equation P = V x A. For example; When the air is turned off, the amount of current drawn from the panels is reduced to maintain voltage. When the sun reappears, more current is allowed again.
The main difference between PWM and MPPT charge controllers is that MPPT devices are more efficient. MPPT charge controllers can provide up to 30 percent increase in charging efficiency depending on the PWM type. In PWM systems, panel voltage and battery voltage should be matched. MPPT systems allow the panel array to be at a higher voltage than the batteries. This means more flexibility for system growth.
On the other hand, MPPT controllers are more expensive than PWM controllers. Therefore, PWM charge controllers are still used in small systems where efficiency is not critical.
The size of the solar energy system should be considered when choosing a charge controller. MPPT charge controllers are best for professional applications. PWM charge regulators, on the other hand, can provide sufficient performance in small applications that do not need many features. The difference in efficiency between PWM and MPPT may not be enough to justify the price difference in small projects. In large projects, it plays a big role in how well the system will perform.
Battery, Battery, Solar Energy, Solar Panel, MPPT, PWM, Charge, Charge Controller, Charge Regulator, Solar